Programme monitoring is the routine tracking of the key elements of programme/project performance, usually inputs  (e.g. money, staff, curricula, materials) and outputs (e.g. intervention sessions completed, people reached, materials distributed, antiretrovirals (ARVs) distributed etc.) through proper record-keeping, regular reporting and surveillance systems, as well as service delivery point observation and client surveys.

Programme evaluation is the episodic assessment of the change in targeted results that can be attributed to the programme or project intervention.

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are a key component of programming. Through M&E, the programme results at all levels (impact, outcome, output, process and input) can be measured to provide the basis for accountability and informed decision-making at both programme and policy level.

For the Global Fund, there are three main M&E documents: the national monitoring and evaluation plan (M&E plan), the performance framework (PF) and the PR Capacity Assessment Tool (CAT) M&E assessment.

An M&E plan describes how the national M&E systems work and is typically developed by the Ministry of Health or the relevant disease programme, in consultation with the PR and all major stakeholders, and is costed. The M&E plan can be either specific to a disease, combined for all diseases or part of the national health sector strategy/plan.

The performance framework is a statement of intended performance and impact, to be reported to the Global Fund over the grant term. It includes an agreed set of indicators and targets that are used to measure the programme’s performance and consequently inform annual funding decisions.